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Environmental issues

The forest ecosystem is a space of ecological processes where a natural dynamic is exercised in favor of humanity. Each plant will play a role on its own scale, as an individual: it will fix carbon, tend to improve air quality, host certain animal and plant species...

 

But it is as a group or forest that they will significantly contribute to enriching the ecosystem and the services it provides to humans. The forest implements NATURE-BASED SOLUTIONS. These NBS are services provided by the forest such as climate regulation, and the influence on the quality of air, water, soil; whose results are universal and borderless.

Forêt

The benefits of the forest


The sanctuary forest allows by its burial model to promote the development of centuries-old trees,
the preservation of the forest ecosystem and the establishment of NBS.


The forest is a major player in the fight for biodiversity, against climate change,

for maintaining soils and creating fertile soils

By allowing the establishment of burials within a forest, the gains for the citizens are multiple.

Schematically, there are 2 main types of ecological services from which humans derive benefits:

The basic processes necessary for the functioning of all ecosystems:

Natural cycles, soil formation, photosynthesis, water cycle, etc. are sometimes referred to as supporting services (Millennium ecosystem assessment, 2005).

  • Regulation services

  • Supply (or withdrawal) services

  • Cultural services

Ecosystem services independent of anthropocentric services


Biodiversity and ecological processes exist independently of the services provided to humans (Foundation for Biodiversity Research; 2017).


Biodiversity (or Support Services):

  • Housing offer

  • Soil formation and maintenance

  • Nutrient cycle

  • Photosynthesis

  • Primary biomass production

  • Water cycle

The forest is the largest terrestrial carbon sink:

  • It absorbs 20% of carbon emissions

  • 12% of greenhouse gases emitted nationally

  • 88 million Tons of CO²/year are thus stored by the forest

Lumière de la forêt

Regulation services:

  • Global climate regulation

Examples of SFN: creation of atmospheric exchanges by capturing carbon dioxide CO², fixing carbon C and releasing oxygen 0²

  • Local climate regulation

Examples of SFN: the emission of VOC Causes rain

 

  • Air quality regulation   

Examples of SFN: By collecting microparticles on their leaves, plants reduce by a third the rate of fine particles in the air, emitted in particular by cars.

Societal cost: air quality is one of the 3 leading causes of premature mortality 48,000 deaths each year in France, which represents a cost for French communities of 100 billion Euros per year (Article from the (AFP published on June 22, 2016)

  • Attenuation of noise pollution

  • Water quality regulation

Societal cost: polluted water would be linked to 1.8 million deaths, worldwide, for example via poor sanitation or contamination of sources, causes of gastrointestinal diseases and parasitic infections (published on 17 03 19 in Futura with AFP)

  • Regulation of pest species, infections and diseases

284 species of insects sheltered by a pedunculate oak, more than a hundred for a hawthorn. 2 tonnes= weight of mycorrhiza per hectare.
1 gram of fertile soil contains: 1 million species of bacteria, 100,000 species of fungi, 1000 species of invertebrates including earthworms, the main players in soil fertility. A healthy soil has a dozen individuals per m3. (Sciences et Avenir The interest of "no plowing" confirmed, By Loïc Chauveau on 09.10.2016)

  • Pollination

Plants can greatly promote the maintenance and development of many species of pollinators, which play an essential role in the reproduction of wild plant species and crops.

Societal cost: 153 billion Euros per year = value of the role of pollination by bees in the world.

Soils are at the heart of major planetary issues: major threats are on the agenda, due to various natural or anthropogenic pressures. Such as: artificialization, erosion, extraction, landslides, etc.

  • Detoxification and degradation of waste

This may include self-purification, detoxification by fixing pollutants.

  • Regulation of natural risks

Urban plants can in particular contribute to the regulation of floods and in certain particular cases contribute to regulating the risks of landslides.

Procurement Services:

 

  • Supply of food: fruits in particular, moreover the biological diversity of the forests stimulates agricultural productivity and acts in favor of food autonomy.

“This is particularly linked to the presence of pollinating species found in forests, as well as the role of barriers against invasions that forests play. » The diversity of studies published by Biological Conservation

  • Supply of materials: mainly wood, humus.

Fertile soils are rare on Earth and the forest is an exceptional contributor.

  • Supply of ornamental resources, landscape, flowers or fruits,

Supply of ornamental resources, landscape, flowers or fruits,

The soil surface where life can develop is tiny on a planetary scale. The soil's capacity for renewal is limited: to form one cm of soil, it takes 200 years to several thousand years. (CF ADEME The future of soils in 10 questions)

Societal cost: The cost of inaction and the degradation of the services provided by the soil is estimated on the horizon
2050 at 7% of world GDP per year (Braat and ten Brink, 2008)

  • Services with a cultural dimension: support for cultural activities, but also for spiritual or symbolic values, systems of knowledge, value or education and cultural heritage, inspiration, aesthetic values, sense of belonging.

  • Services with a leisure dimension: tourism, sports, etc.

“As for the future, it is not a question of foreseeing it, but of making it possible” A. de St Exupéry

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